• Group Violence Intervention

    The Group Violence Intervention (GVI) reduces violent crime when community members join together with law enforcement and social service providers to deliver an anti-violence message to highly active street groups.

About the Strategy
Research
Tools & Guides

The Group Violence Intervention (GVI) has shown repeatedly that a city can dramatically reduce homicide and gun violence when community members and law enforcement join together to directly engage with these groups and clearly communicate 1) a credible, moral message against violence; 2) a credible law enforcement message about the consequences of further violence; and 3) a genuine offer of help for those who want it.

Pioneered by National Network Director David Kennedy and colleagues as "Operation Ceasefire" in Boston during the 1990s, the intervention was responsible for a 63 percent reduction in youth homicide that came to be known as “The Boston Miracle.” The strategy requires that people from disparate backgrounds, often with competing priorities, work together in unusual ways and focus on a single goal: reducing serious violence in their community.

A real working partnership among stakeholders within law enforcement, community members and social services is the strategy’s most important element and also its greatest challenge. The explicit aim is to reduce pro-violence peer dynamics within gangs by creating collective accountability, fostering internal dynamics that deter violence, establishing community norms and standards against violence, and giving gang members who want it an “honorable exit” from the street life.

The National Network produced Group Violence Intervention: An Implementation Guide, published by COPS Office in 2013, to provide a practical tool for stakeholders seeking to implement GVI in their jurisdiction.


Group Violence Intervention: An Implementation Guide

A comprehensive guide to the National Network's Group Violence Intervention strategy. This guide covers all relevant steps to the strategy from initial planning and problem analysis to enforcement actions and call-in implementation, and further considers issues of maintenance, integrity, sustainability and accountability to offer interested parties a step-by-step guide to successfully implementing GVI in any jurisdiction.


Call-In Preparation and Execution Guide

A complete guide for law enforcement, community, and social services partners already engaged in implementing the Group Violence Intervention to design, prepare, and execute their first and subsequent call-ins.


Four Case Studies of Swift and Meaningful Law Enforcement

For the Group Violence Intervention to achieve its desired outcomes, stakeholders must be authentic and their messages credible. For law enforcement this means making good on the promise of swift and meaningful consequences for a group or gang as a whole when a prohibited violent act (usually shooting or killing) is committed by one of its members. This document captures examples of successful and creative law enforcement responses to group violence as carried out by police departments and their partner agencies in key National Network jurisdictions.


Pulling Levers Focused Deterrence Strategies to Prevent Crime

This paper briefly reviews the research on the crime control effectiveness of "pulling levers" focused deterrence programs. Focused deterrence strategies honor core deterrence ideas, such as increasing risks faced by offenders, while finding new and creative ways of deploying traditional and non-traditional law enforcement tools to do so, such as communicating incentives and disincentives directly to targeted offenders.


Webinar: Employing Streetworkers to Address Group Violence (2011)

The Institute of the Study & Practice of Nonviolence in Providence is a national pioneer in training and employing professional street outreach workers to address and prevent violence. It has also forged a highly effective partnership with the Providence Police Department that the National Network for Safe Communities believes can serve as a model for other jurisdictions seeking to utilize street outreach workers as part of implementing the Group Violence Intervention. In this webinar, the Institute’s Executive Director Teny Gross and Streetworker Program Manager Ajay Benton discuss the following key issues: Principles and Practice of Nonviolence; Training; Hiring & Firing; Partnering With Police, Schools, and Hospitals; Selecting Target Clients; Managing Risks; Managing Public Relations; Measuring Success. Click here for the webinar's PowerPoint.


Webinar: Using Social Network Analysis in Crime Prevention (2011)

Social network analysis— the scientific tool behind social media like Facebook and Twitter—is used widely in the private sector to understand markets and organizations and in the health sector to understand the spread of disease. It can be used just as effectively to devise new ways to reduce violent crime. Leadership Group jurisdictions Chicago and Cincinnati have been at the forefront of applying social network analysis in crime prevention. In this webinar, Andrew Papachristos, Ph.D., a national expert and the research partner of the Chicago Police Department, and Captain Daniel Gerard of the Cincinnati Police Department will demonstrate how social network analysis is applied in the context of the Group Violence Intervention. Key issues addressed include: Mapping of group, gang and faction structures and relationships; designing surgically precise enforcement actions; expanding knowledge of group membership using commonly available administrative data; identifying the most influential group members for taking antiviolence messages back to affiliates. Click here for the webinar's PowerPoint.


Webinar: Communicating with Offenders—Innovative Notification Strategies (2010)

This webinar focuses on innovative techniques for communicating key messages to offenders, potential offenders and affected communities as part of the National Network's group violence reduction and drug market strategies. Key issues include: Best practices in the "classic" call-in format; Voluntary call-ins for gang members; Home visits with impact players; Custom legal assessments; Prison call-ins; The use of "influentials" in both strategies; Emphasizing legitimacy in the call-in; Use of social network analysis. 


Chicago Violence Reduction Strategy: Applications of Social Network Analysis (2011)

Social network analysis is an integral part of Chicago's Violence Reduction Strategy (VRS). It is used to expand and improve the police department's intelligence on gangs, groups and local gang factions; to identify the most socially connected group and gang members to take the VRS anti-violence message back to their associates; and to assess the impact of law enforcement efforts on groups or gangs. This document outlines three examples of social network analysis as a tool to narrowly and effectively focus law enforcement resources on group violence.


Cincinnati Initiative to Reduce Violence: Home/Street Visits (2011)

A report about the groundbreaking home/street visits approach developed by the Cincinnati Initiative to Reduce Violence (CIRV) to keep its anti-violence message "fresh" in between its formal court house call-ins. The CIRV team identifies key impact players within groups active in crime hot-spots, meets with them face-to-face at their homes or in the streets, and delivers the message in a way that has led to substantial reductions in shootings around the city.


Practice Brief: Group Enforcement Actions and Talking Points (2010)

This brief explores the role and purpose of demonstration, and subsequent, group enforcement actions ("crackdowns") associated with the law enforcement component of the Group Violence Intervention, including talking points for presenting these actions within actual call-ins/notification meetings with group and gang members.


Integrating and Evaluating Multiple PSN Strategies in Chicago (2009)

This PowerPoint presentation summarizes findings from an evaluation of the impact of Project Safe Neighborhood (PSN) initiatives on neighborhood level crime rates in Chicago. Several PSN interventions were found to be associated with greater declines of homicide in the treatment neighborhoods compared to the control neighborhoods. Out of four interventions analyzed, the largest effect was associated with the offender notifications that stress individual deterrence, normative change in offender behavior, and increasing views on legitimacy and procedural justice.


Building Collaborative Violent Crime Task Force Structures (2009)

This PowerPoint presentation, by Robert A.J. Lang, Assistant U.S. Attorney for the Middle District of North Carolina, and Jodi A. Ramirez, Law Enforcement Coordinator/Program Manager of Project Safe Cabarrus, sets out how to create the partnerships and agency structures necessary to successfully implement and sustain the group violence strategy. It includes guidelines on how best to overcome common institutional barriers as well as best practices for sustaining the initiative.


Project Safe Cabarraus – Program Manager Position (2009)

The document provides a description of the Project Manager position in this initiative. The Project Manager is responsible for coordinating community-wide resources, agencies, and committees as part of the federally funded Project Safe Neighborhood (PSN) initiative. PSN is based in part on the National Network's group violence strategy.


Cincinnati Initiative to Reduce Violence (CIRV) – Organizational Structure, Processes and Outcomes (2009)

This PowerPoint presentation, by CIRV Executive Director Greg Baker, provides an outline of the structure, processes and outcomes of the initiative, aimed at reducing gun violence and homicides in Cincinnati.


Controlling Gang Violence in High Point – High Point Police Department (2008)

This PowerPoint presentation by the High Point Police Department includes an outline of the theory underlying the group violence strategy, a step-by-step implementation guide, a link analysis of the groups engaged in violent crime in High Point, and details of the department's organizational realignment to more effectively support its mission of crime reduction.



Braga, A., Weisburd, D. L. (2012). The Effects of “Pulling Levers” Focused Deterrence Strategies on Crime. Campbell Systematic Reviews. DOI: 10.4073/csr.2012.6

Braga, A. A., Weisburd, D.L. (2012). Pulling Levers Focused Deterrence Strategies to Prevent Crime. No. 6 of Crime Prevention Research Review. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.

Braga, A. A., Hureau, D., & Winship, C. (2008). Losing Faith? Police, Black Churches, and the Resurgence of Youth Violence in Boston. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 6 (1) 141-172

Braga, A. A., McDevitt, J., & Pierce, G. L. (2006). Understanding and Preventing Gang Violence: Problem Analysis and Response Development in Lowell, Massachusetts. Police Quarterly, 9 (1) 20-46

Braga, A A., Kennedy, D.M., Piehl, A.M., & Waring, E.J. (2001, September). Reducing Gun Violence: The Boston Gun Project’s Operation Ceasefire. National Institute of Justice Research Report

Kennedy, D.M. (2008). Deterrence and Crime Prevention: Reconsidering the Prospect of Sanction. NY: Routledge

NEW! Mazerolle, L., Bennett, S., Davis, J., Sargeant, E., Manning, M. (2012) Legitmacy in Policing. Campbell Systematic Reviews.

Meares, T. L.(2009). The Legitimacy of Police Among Young African-American Men. Faculty Scholarship Series. Paper 528.

McGarrell, E., & Chermak, S. (2003, October). Strategic Approaches to Reducing Firearms Violence: Final Report on the Indianapolis Violence Reduction Partnership. National Criminal Justice Reference Service

Papachristos, A. V., Meares, T., & Fagan, J. (2007). Attention Felons: Evaluating Project Safe Neighborhoods in Chicago. Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, 4 (2) 223-272.

Click here to view the Full Index of Research Material on Group Violence Intervention.

Full Research Index


Braga, A. A., Weisburd, D. L. (2012). The Effects of “Pulling Levers” Focused Deterrence Strategies on Crime. Campbell Systematic Reviews. DOI: 10.4073/csr.2012.6

Braga, A. A., Weisburd, D.L. (2012). Pulling Levers Focused Deterrence Strategies to Prevent Crime. No. 6 of Crime Prevention Research Review. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.

Braga, A.A., Weisburd, D.L. (2011). The Effects of Focused-Deterrence Strategies on Crime: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Evidence (Campbell Collaboration). Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. 

Braga, A. A., Hureau, D., & Winship, C. (2008). Losing Faith? Police, Black Churches, and the Resurgence of Youth Violence in Boston. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 6 (1) 141-172

Braga, A. A. (2008). Pulling Levers: Focused Deterrence Strategies and the Prevention of Gun Homicide.Journal of Criminal Justice, 36 (4) 332-343

Braga, A. A., Pierce, G. L., McDevitt J., Bond, B. J., & Cronin S. (2008). The Strategic Prevention of Gun Violence Among Gang-Involved Offenders. Justice Quarterly, 25, 132-162.

Braga, A. A., McDevitt, J., & Pierce, G. L. (2006). Understanding and Preventing Gang Violence: Problem Analysis and Response Development in Lowell, Massachusetts. Police Quarterly, 9 (1) 20-46

Braga, A A., & Winship, C. (2005, September). Creating an Effective Foundation to Prevent Youth Violence: Lessons Learned from Boston in the 1990s. Rappaport Institute Policy Brief PB-2005-5

Braga, A. A., & Kennedy, D.M. (2002, July). Reducing Gang Violence in Boston. In Responding to Gangs: Evaluation and Research. Eds. Reed, W.L. and Decker, S.H. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice

Braga, A A., Kennedy, D.M., Piehl, A.M., & Waring, E.J. (2001, September). Reducing Gun Violence: The Boston Gun Project’s Operation Ceasefire. National Institute of Justice Research Report 

Braga, A. A., Kennedy, D.M., Waring, E.J., & Piehl, A.M. (2001). Problem-Oriented Policing, Deterrence, and Youth Violence: An Evaluation of Boston's Operation Ceasefire. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 38 (3) 195-226

Braga, A. A., Piehl, A.M., & Kennedy D.M. (1999). Youth Homicide in Boston: An Assessment of Supplementary Homicide Report Data. Homicide Studies, 3 (4) 277-299

Bullock, K., & Tilley, N. (2002). Shootings, Gangs, and Violent Incidents in Manchester: Developing a Crime Reduction Strategy. Crime Reduction Research Paper Series 13. London: Home Office

Bullock, K., & Tilley, N. (2002, May). Shootings, Gangs, and Violent Incidents in Manchester: Developing a Crime Reduction Strategy. Briefing Note. London: Home Office

Bynum, T.S., & McCluskey, J.D. (2007, November). Strategic Approaches to Community Safety Initiative (SACSI): Detroit, Michigan. National Criminal Justice Reference Service 

Corsaro, N., McGarrell, E. F. (2009). An Evaluation of the Nashville Drug Market Initiative (DMI) Pulling Levers Strategy. Drug Market Intervention Working Paper. School of Criminal Justice Michigan State University. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Dalton, E. (2003, December). Lessons in Preventing Homicide. Project Safe Neighborhoods Report. School of Criminal Justice, Michigan State University

Easterling, D., Harvey, L., Mac-Thompson, D., & Allen, M. (2002, July). Evaluation of SACSI in Winston-Salem: Engaging the Community in a Strategic Analysis of Youth Violence. National Criminal Justice Reference Service 

Engel, R.S., Corsaro, N., Skubak Tillyer, M. (2010, October). Evaluation of the Cincinnati Initiative to Reduce Violence (CIRV). University of Cincinnati Policing Institute

Engel, R.S., Baker, G., Skubak Tillyer, M., Dunham, J.R., Hall, D., Ozer, M., Henson, B., Godsey, T. (2009).Implementation of the Cincinnati Initiative to Reduce Violence (CIRV): Year 2 Report. University of Cincinnati Policing Institute

Engel, R.S., Baker, G., Skubak Tillyer, M., Eck, J., & Dunham, J. (2008, April). Implementation of the Cincinnati Initiative to Reduce Violence (CIRV): Year 1 Report. University of Cincinnati Policing Institute

Fagan, J., Meares, T., Papachristos, A.V., & Wallace, D. (2008, November). Desistance and Legitimacy: Effect Heterogeneity in a Field Experiment with High-Risk Offenders. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, St. Louis, MO.

Fight Crime: Invest in Kids (n.d). What Works with Gangs? A Research Brief for Community Leaders

Hartstone, E.C..& Richetelli, D.M. (2003, January). Final Assessment of the Strategic Approaches to Community Safety Initiative in New Haven (CT) National Criminal Justice Reference Service

Hawken, A., Kleiman, M. (2009). Managing Drug-Involved Probatitioners with Swift and Certain Sanctions: Evaluating Hawaii's HOPE. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice

Kapsch, S.J., Louis, L. , & Oleson, K. (2004, January). The Dynamics of Deterrence: Youth Gun Violence in Portland (YLS/CMI) National Criminal Justice Reference Service

Kennedy, D.M. (2008). Deterrence and Crime Prevention: Reconsidering the Prospect of Sanctions. NY: Routledge

Kennedy, D.M. (2006). “Old Wine in New Bottles: Policing and the Lessons of Pulling Levers” In Police Innovation: Contrasting Perspectives. Eds.Weisburd, D. and Braga, A.A. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Kennedy, D. M. (2002). "A Tale of One City: Reflections on the Boston Gun Project" In Securing Our Children's Future: New Approaches to Juvenile Justice and Youth Violence. Ed. Katzmann, G.S. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press 

Kennedy, D.M. (1999). Research for Problem Solving and the New Collaborations. In Viewing Crime and Justice from a Collaborative Perspective: Plenary Papers of the 1998 Conference on Criminal Justice Research and Evaluation 

Kennedy, D. M., & Braga A.A. (1998). Homicide in Minneapolis: Research for Problem Solving. Homicide Studies, 2 (3) 263-290

Kennedy, D.M. (1998, July). Pulling Levers: Getting Deterrence Right. National Institute of Justice Journal 

Kennedy, D. M. (1997). Pulling Levers: Chronic Offenders, High-Crime Settings, and a Theory of Prevention.Valparaiso University Law Review, 31 (2)

Kennedy, D. M., Braga, A.A., & Piehl, A.M. (1997). "The (Un)Known Universe: Mapping Gangs and Gang Violence in Boston." In Crime Mapping and Crime Prevention, ed. David L. Weisburd and J. Thomas McEwen. New York: Criminal Justice Press

Kennedy, D. M., Piehl, A.M., & Braga, A.A. (1996). Youth Violence in Boston: Gun Markets, Serious Youth Offenders, and a Use-Reduction Strategy. Law and Contemporary Problems, 59 (1) 147-196

Klofas, J.M., Delaney C., & Smith, T. (2007, November). Strategic Approaches to Community Safety Initiative (SACSI) in Rochester, NY National Criminal Justice Reference Service 

Mazerolle, L., Bennett, S., Davis, J., Sargeant, E., Manning, M. (2012) Legitmacy in Policing. Campbell Systematic Reviews.

McDevitt, Jack., Braga, Anthony A., Cronin, Shea.  (February 2007). Project Safe Neighborhoods: Strategic Interventions:  Lowell, District of Massachusetts: Case Study 6. U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C.

McGarrell, E. (2005). Strategic Problem Solving and Project Safe Neighborhoods. PSN Working Paper. School of Criminal Justice, Michigan State University 

McGarrell, E., & Chermak, S. (2003, October). Strategic Approaches to Reducing Firearms Violence: Final Report on the Indianapolis Violence Reduction Partnership. National Criminal Justice Reference Service 

McGarrell, E.F., Chermak, S., Wilson, J.M., & Corsaro, N. (2006). Reducing Homicide through a "Lever-Pulling" Strategy. Justice Quarterly, 23 (2) 214-231

Meares, T. (2009). The Legitimacy of Police Among Young African-American Men Marquette Law Review, 92(4) 651-666

Meares, T., Papachristos, A.V., & Fagan, J. (2009, January). Homicide and Gun Violence in Chicago: Evaluation and Summary of the Project Safe Neighborhoods Program. Project Safe Neighborhoods Research Brief. 

National Institute of Justice. (2008, April). Paving the Way for Project Safe Neighborhoods: SACSI in 10 U.S. Cities. Research Report 

National Institute of Justice. (2006, June). Reducing Gun Violence: Community Problem Solving in Atlanta.

National Institute of Justice. (2005, February). Reducing Gun Violence: Operation Ceasefire in Los Angeles

Papachristos, A.V., Braga, A.A., Hureau, D.M. (2011). Six Degrees of Violent Victimization: Social Networks and the Risk of Gunshot Injury . Manuscript submitted for publication. 

Papachristos, A. V., Meares, T., & Fagan, J. (2007). Attention Felons: Evaluating Project Safe Neighborhoods in Chicago. University of Chicago Olin Law and Economics Paper No. 269 and Columbia University Law School Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper Series Paper No. 05-97

Piehl, A.M., Cooper, S.J., Braga, A.A., & Kennedy, D.M. (2003). Testing for Structural Breaks in the Evaluation of Programs. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 85 (3) 550-558

Piehl, A.M., Kennedy, D.M., Braga, A.A. Problem Solving and Youth Violence: An Evaluation of the Boston Gun Project. American Law and Economics Review 2 (1) (Spring 2000)

Rosenfeld, R., Fornango, R., Baumer, E. (2005). Did Ceasefire, Compstat, and Exile Reduce Homicide?Criminology & Public Policy. Vol.4 (3)

Sparrow, M.K., Moore, M.H., Kennedy, D.M. Beyond 911: A New Era for Policing. New York: Basic Books (1990)

Steele, P. D., Broidy, L. The Strategic Approaches to Community Safety Initiative in Albuquerque: Project Activities and Research Results National Criminal Justice Research Services (November 2007)

Tita, G., Riley, K.J., Ridgeway, G., Grammich, C., Abrahamse, A.F. Reducing Gun Violence: Results From An Intervention In East Los Angeles. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2010.

Wakeling, S. Ending Gang Homicide: Deterrence Can Work. Perspectives on Violent Prevention. California Attorney General’s Office/California Health and Human Services Agency, Nr. 1 (February 2003)


Results


63%

reduction in youth homicide

Boston

41%

reduction in gang-member involved homicide

Cincinnati

42%

reduction in gun homicide through Stockton Operation Peacekeeper, 1997-2002

Stockton

44%

reduction in gun assaults through Project Safe Neighborhooods

Lowell

34%

reduction in homicides

Indianapolis

News & Updates

Community members and law enforcement join together to stop gun violence in South Bend

April 2014  |  WNDU  

Over the last four years in South Bend, shootings have gone up during the summer months. However, this year has been different. Homicide is down this summer and the South Bend community leaders involved in the city's Group Violence Intervention think it's due to the success of the call-in meeting held in May, where law enforcement, community activists, and service providers spoke directly to group members about stopping the violence. South Bend held it's second call-in August 28th.

Tags: South Bend Group Violence Intervention

Message Getting Across in Sixth Peoria Don’t Shoot Call-In

April 2014  |  Central Illinois Proud  

Don't Shoot in Peoria held it's sixth call-in with group members, and the dedicated community members involved in the strategy believe the message is getting across. 

Tags: Peoria Drug Market InterventionGroup Violence Intervention

Update on South Bend gang violence intervention program

April 2014  |  Fox 28 News  

Two and a half months after South Bend's first call-in, GVI coordinator Dominic Zultanski says the number of shootings in South Bend are down.  Out of the 21 men who attended May's call-in, fifteen men have accepted offers for services.

Tags: South Bend Group Violence Intervention

Malloy Applauds Bridgeport’s Drop In Violent Crime

April 2014  |  The Courant  

During a visit to Bridgeport, Gov. Dan Malloy said that programs like Project Longevity is part of a coordinated effort to keep the state's young people safer. Bridgeport's chapter of Project Longevity has reached out to 79 potential offenders between the ages of 17 and 34 — some of them with records of violent crimes — inviting them to group meetings with police officers and other members of the community to talk about the consequences of violent activity and offering to help them find jobs.

Tags: BridgeportHartfordNew Haven Group Violence Intervention Custom NotificationsSocial Network Analysis

Kansas City homicide rate down in first half of 2014

April 2014  |  Kansas City Star  

As of June 30, Kansas City homicides were down 31 percent from the same time last year. Coincidence or not, the decrease comes during the first months of a reorganization in the way the Kansas City Police Department fights violent crime, and follows the first full year of the ambitious and multifaceted Kansas City No Violence Alliance (KC NoVA).

Tags: Kansas City Group Violence Intervention

What We Talk About When We Talk About Violence In Chicago

April 2014  |  NPR's Codeswitch  

Andrew Papachristos points to what he calls "the crime gap" — the huge disparity in homicide rates in different areas of the Windy City. "Even though the numbers in Chicago are what they are, the gap between the worst neighborhoods and the best neighborhoods is massive," he said. The neighborhoods that have had the highest rates of violence over the last half-century still see the most violence.

Tags: Chicago Group Violence Intervention Social Network Analysis

After one year on the job, Detroit Police Chief James Craig said the department is turning around

April 2014  |  Michigan Radio  

Prior to his return to the department a year ago, Police Chief James Craig began his career in law enforcement in Detroit in 1977 and has since then served in Los Angeles and Cincinnati.  "We need to drive the message. We need to tell the story. We need to talk about our crime reduction efforts. We need to talk about the community’s perception,” Craig said. 

Tags: Detroit Group Violence Intervention

Kansas City moves in the right direction on murder, gunshot numbers

April 2014  |  Kansas City Star  

Kansas City closed out June with good reasons to be encouraged that efforts to abate violent crimes may be showing results. "Using intelligence to get ahead of violence is huge," said Kansas City Police Capt. Joe McHale, who is working with Kansas City NoVA, one of the innovative ways of deploying police resources, one of the efforts that may be having results.

Tags: Kansas City Group Violence Intervention

Chief Fletcher Says Violence Reduction Initiative in On Track

April 2014  |  WDEF  

As he begins his second full week on the job, Chief of Police Fred Fletcher says Chattanooga's Violence Reduction Initiative is on track.
 

Tags: Chattanooga Group Violence Intervention

Implementation

Canton, OH

Cleveland, OH

Concord, NC

Dallas, TX

Dayton, OH

Flint, MI

Fresno, CA

Graham, NC

Hillsborough, NC

Indianapolis, IN

Kalamazoo, MI

Lancaster, PA

Long Beach, CA

Madison, WI

Milwaukee, WI

Oklahoma City, OK

Omaha, NE

Oxnard, CA

Pittsburgh, PA

Portland, OR

Richmond, CA

Sacramento, CA

Salinas, CA

Salisbury, NC

San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation, AZ

Shelby, NC

Syracuse, NY

Toledo, OH

Winston-Salem, NC