The National Network’s approach has been implemented in scores of cities over the years. A growing body of scholarly evidence—including systematic reviews and city-level studies—shows this method to be the most effective at addressing serious violence.
The Effects of “Pulling Levers” Focused Deterrence Strategies on Crime. Campbell Systematic Reviews (2012), Anthony A. Braga & David L. Weisburd
Effectiveness of Street Gang Control Strategies: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Evaluation Studies (2015), Jennifer Wong, Jason Gravel, Martin Bouchard, Carlo Morselli, & Karine Descormiers.
What Works in Crime Prevention and Rehabilitation (2016), David Weisburd, David P. Farrington, & Charlotte Gill
What Works in Reducing Community Violence: A Meta-Review and Field Study for the Norther Triangle (2016), Thomas Abt & Christopher Winship
Full list of evaluations:
Best, M (2009). Model Police Work. UNCG Research, 7, 8-15.
Braga, A. A., & Weisburd, D. L. (2015). Focused deterrence and the prevention of violent gun injuries: practice, theoretical principles, and scientific evidence. Annual Review of Public Health, 36, 55-68.
Braga, A. A., Apel, R., & Welsh, B. C. (2013). The Spillover Effects of Focused Deterrence on Gang Violence. Evaluation Review, 37(3-4), 314-342.
Braga, A. A., & Weisburd, D.L. (2012). Pulling Levers Focused Deterrence Strategies to Prevent Crime. No. 6 of Crime Prevention Research Review. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.
Braga, A.A., & Weisburd, D.L. (2011). The Effects of Focused-Deterrence Strategies on Crime: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Evidence (Campbell Collaboration). Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency.
Braga, A. A., Hureau, D., & Winship, C. (2008). Losing Faith? Police, Black Churches, and the Resurgence of Youth Violence in Boston. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 6 (1) 141-172
Braga, A. A. (2008). Pulling Levers: Focused Deterrence Strategies and the Prevention of Gun Homicide.Journal of Criminal Justice, 36 (4) 332-343
Braga, A. A., Pierce, G. L., McDevitt J., Bond, B. J., & Cronin S. (2008). The Strategic Prevention of Gun Violence Among Gang-Involved Offenders. Justice Quarterly, 25, 132-162.
Braga, A. A., McDevitt, J., & Pierce, G. L. (2006). Understanding and Preventing Gang Violence: Problem Analysis and Response Development in Lowell, Massachusetts. Police Quarterly, 9 (1) 20-46
Braga, A A., & Winship, C. (2005, September). Creating an Effective Foundation to Prevent Youth Violence: Lessons Learned from Boston in the 1990s. Rappaport Institute Policy Brief PB-2005-5
Braga, A. A., & Kennedy, D.M. (2002, July). Reducing Gang Violence in Boston. In Responding to Gangs: Evaluation and Research. Eds. Reed, W.L. and Decker, S.H. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice
Braga, A A., Kennedy, D.M., Piehl, A.M., & Waring, E.J. (2001, September). Reducing Gun Violence: The Boston Gun Project’s Operation Ceasefire. National Institute of Justice Research Report
Braga, A. A., Kennedy, D.M., Waring, E.J., & Piehl, A.M. (2001). Problem-Oriented Policing, Deterrence, and Youth Violence: An Evaluation of Boston’s Operation Ceasefire. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 38 (3) 195-226
Braga, A. A., Piehl, A.M., & Kennedy D.M. (1999). Youth Homicide in Boston: An Assessment of Supplementary Homicide Report Data. Homicide Studies, 3 (4) 277-299
Bullock, K., & Tilley, N. (2002). Shootings, Gangs, and Violent Incidents in Manchester: Developing a Crime Reduction Strategy. Crime Reduction Research Paper Series 13. London: Home Office
Bynum, T.S., & McCluskey, J.D. (2007, November). Strategic Approaches to Community Safety Initiative (SACSI): Detroit, Michigan. National Criminal Justice Reference Service
Corsaro, N., & Engel, R. S. (2015). Most Challenging of Contexts: Assessing the Impact of Focused Deterrence on Serious Violence in New Orleans. Criminology & Public Policy, 14(3). DOI:10.1111/1745-9133.12142.
Corsaro, N., Hunt, E.D., Kroovand Hipple, N., McGarrell, E. (2012). The Impact of Drug Market Pulling Levers Policing on Neighborhood Violence. Criminology & Public Policy. Vol. 11, Issue 2.
Corsaro, N., Brunson, R.K., McGarrell, E.F. (2009). Problem-Oriented Policing and Open-Air Drug Markets: Examining the Rockford Pulling Levers Deterrence Strategy. Crime & Delinquency
Corsaro, N., McGarrell, E.F. (2009). An Evaluation of the Nashville Drug Market Initiative (DMI) Pulling Levers Strategy. Drug Market Intervention Working Paper. East Lansing, MA: Michigan State University
Dalton, E. (2003, December). Lessons in Preventing Homicide. Project Safe Neighborhoods Report. School of Criminal Justice, Michigan State University
Easterling, D., Harvey, L., Mac-Thompson, D., & Allen, M. (2002, July). Evaluation of SACSI in Winston-Salem: Engaging the Community in a Strategic Analysis of Youth Violence. National Criminal Justice Reference Service
Engel, R.S., Corsaro, N., Skubak Tillyer, M. (2010, October). Evaluation of the Cincinnati Initiative to Reduce Violence (CIRV): . University of Cincinnati Policing Institute
Engel, R.S., Skubak Tillyer, M., & Corsaro, N. (2013) Reducing Gang Violence Using Focused Deterrence: Evaluating the Cincinnati Initiative to Reduce Violence (CIRV). Justice Quarterly, 30:3, 403-439, DOI: 10.1080/07418825.2011.619559
Engel, R.S., Baker, G., Skubak Tillyer, M., Dunham, J.R., Hall, D., Ozer, M., Henson, B., Godsey, T. (2009).Implementation of the Cincinnati Initiative to Reduce Violence (CIRV): Year 2 Report. University of Cincinnati Policing Institute
Engel, R.S., Baker, G., Skubak Tillyer, M., Eck, J., & Dunham, J. (2008, April). Implementation of the Cincinnati Initiative to Reduce Violence (CIRV): Year 1 Report. University of Cincinnati Policing Institute
Fagan, J., Meares, T., Papachristos, A.V., & Wallace, D. (2008, November). Desistance and Legitimacy: Effect Heterogeneity in a Field Experiment with High-Risk Offenders. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, St. Louis, MO.
Fight Crime: Invest in Kids (n.d). What Works with Gangs? A Research Brief for Community Leaders
Frabutt, J. M., Hefner, M. K., Harvey, L. K., Di Luca, K. L., & Shelton, T. L. (in press). Key Community Stakeholders in a Police-Community Partnership to Eliminate Street-Drug Markets: Roles, Engagement, and Assessment of the Strategy. Crime, Punishment, and the Law: An International Journal.
Frabutt, J. M., Hefner, M. K., Di Luca, K. L., Shelton, T. L., & Harvey, L.K. (2010). A Street-Drug Elimination Initiative: The Law Enforcement Perspective. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 33 (3), 452-472.
Hartstone, E.C..& Richetelli, D.M. (2003, January). Final Assessment of the Strategic Approaches to Community Safety Initiative in New Haven (CT) National Criminal Justice Reference Service
Hawken, A., Kleiman, M. (2009). Managing Drug-Involved Probatitioners with Swift and Certain Sanctions: Evaluating Hawaii’s HOPE. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice
Hipple, N.K., Corsaro, N., McGarrell, E. F (2010). The High Point Drug Market Initiative: A Process and Impact Assessment. East Lansing, MA: Michigan State University
Hipple, N. K., McGarrell, E. F. et al (2009). Drug Market Intervention Implementation Guide and Lessons Learned. Bureau of Justice Assistance.
Kapsch, S.J., Louis, L. , & Oleson, K. (2003, June). The Dynamics of Deterrence: Youth Gun Violence in Portland (YLS/CMI) National Criminal Justice Reference Service.
Kennedy, D.(2009, March). Drugs, Race and Common Ground: Reflections on the High Point Intervention.National Institute of Justice Journal, No. 262.
Kennedy, D.M. (2006). “Old Wine in New Bottles: Policing and the Lessons of Pulling Levers” In Police Innovation: Contrasting Perspectives. Eds.Weisburd, D. and Braga, A.A. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Kennedy, D. M. (2002). “A Tale of One City: Reflections on the Boston Gun Project” In Securing Our Children’s Future: New Approaches to Juvenile Justice and Youth Violence. Ed. Katzmann, G.S. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press
Kennedy, D.M. (1999). Research for Problem Solving and the New Collaborations. In Viewing Crime and Justice from a Collaborative Perspective: Plenary Papers of the 1998 Conference on Criminal Justice Research and Evaluation
Kennedy, D. M., & Braga A.A. (1998). Homicide in Minneapolis: Research for Problem Solving. Homicide Studies, 2 (3) 263-290
Kennedy, D.M. (1998, July). Pulling Levers: Getting Deterrence Right. National Institute of Justice Journal
Kennedy, D. M. (1997). Pulling Levers: Chronic Offenders, High-Crime Settings, and a Theory of Prevention.Valparaiso University Law Review, 31 (2)
Kennedy, D. M., Braga, A.A., & Piehl, A.M. (1997). “The (Un)Known Universe: Mapping Gangs and Gang Violence in Boston.” In Crime Mapping and Crime Prevention, ed. David L. Weisburd and J. Thomas McEwen. New York: Criminal Justice Press
Kennedy, D. M., Piehl, A.M., & Braga, A.A. (1996). Youth Violence in Boston: Gun Markets, Serious Youth Offenders, and a Use-Reduction Strategy. Law and Contemporary Problems, 59 (1) 147-196
Kennedy, D.M, Wong, S.L., (2009). The High Point Drug Market Intervention Strategy. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Community-Oriented Policing Services.
Kennedy, D.M. (2008). Deterrence and Crime Prevention: Reconsidering the Prospect of Sanction. NY: Routledge
Klofas, J.M., Delaney C., & Smith, T. (2007, November). Strategic Approaches to Community Safety Initiative (SACSI) in Rochester, NY National Criminal Justice Reference Service
Mazerolle, L., Bennett, S., Davis, J., Sargeant, E., Manning, M. (2012). Legitimacy in Policing. Campbell Systematic Reviews.
McDevitt, Jack., Braga, Anthony A., Cronin, Shea. (February 2007). Project Safe Neighborhoods: Strategic Interventions: Lowell, District of Massachusetts: Case Study 6. U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C.
McGarrell, E. F., Corsaro, N., Brunson, R..K. (2010). The Drug Market Intervention Approach to Overt Drug Markets. VARSTVOSLOVJE, Journal of Criminal Justice and Security. Year 12 No. 4. pp. 397-407
McGarrell, E. (2005). Strategic Problem Solving and Project Safe Neighborhoods. PSN Working Paper. School of Criminal Justice, Michigan State University
McGarrell, E., & Chermak, S. (2003, October). Strategic Approaches to Reducing Firearms Violence: Final Report on the Indianapolis Violence Reduction Partnership. National Criminal Justice Reference Service
McGarrell, E.F., Chermak, S., Wilson, J.M., & Corsaro, N. (2006). Reducing Homicide through a “Lever-Pulling” Strategy. Justice Quarterly, 23 (2) 214-231
Meares, T. (2009). The Legitimacy of Police Among Young African-American Men. Marquette Law Review, 92(4) 651-666
Meares, T., Papachristos, A.V., & Fagan, J. (2009, January). Homicide and Gun Violence in Chicago: Evaluation and Summary of the Project Safe Neighborhoods Program. Project Safe Neighborhoods Research Brief.
National Institute of Justice. (2008, April). Paving the Way for Project Safe Neighborhoods: SACSI in 10 U.S. Cities. Research Report
National Institute of Justice. (2006, June). Reducing Gun Violence: Community Problem Solving in Atlanta.
National Institute of Justice. (2005, February). Reducing Gun Violence: Operation Ceasefire in Los Angeles.
Papachristos, A. V., Braga, A. A., Hureau, D. M. (2011). Six Degrees of Violent Victimization: Social Networks and the Risk of Gunshot Injury. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Papachristos, A. V., & Kirk, D. S. (2015). Changing the Street Dynamic: Evaluating Chicago’s Group Violence Reduction Strategy. Criminology & Public Policy, 14(3). DOI:10.1111/1745-9133.12142.
Papachristos, A. V., Meares, T., & Fagan, J. (2007). Attention Felons: Evaluating Project Safe Neighborhoods in Chicago. University of Chicago Olin Law and Economics Paper No. 269 and Columbia University Law School Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper Series Paper No. 05-97
Piehl, A.M., Cooper, S.J., Braga, A.A., & Kennedy, D.M. (2003). Testing for Structural Breaks in the Evaluation of Programs. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 85 (3) 550-558
Piehl, A.M., Kennedy, D.M., Braga, A.A. (2000, Spring). Problem Solving and Youth Violence: An Evaluation of the Boston Gun Project. American Law and Economics Review Vol.2 No.1
Rosenfeld, R., Fornango, R., Baumer, E. (2005). Did Ceasefire, Compstat, and Exile Reduce Homicide? Criminology & Public Policy. Vol.4 (3)
Sierra-Arevalo, M., Yanick, C., Papachristos, A.V. (2016). Evaluating the Effect of Project Longevity on Group-Involved Shootings and Homicides in New Haven. Connecticut: Crime & Delinquency. DOI: 10.1177/0011128716635197
Sparrow, M.K., Moore, M.H., Kennedy, D.M. (1990). Beyond 911: A New Era for Policing. New York: Basic Books
Steele, P. D., Broidy, L. (2007, November). The Strategic Approaches to Community Safety Initiative in Albuquerque: Project Activities and Research Results National Criminal Justice Research Services
Thacher, David. (2016). Channeling Police Discretion: The Hidden Potential of Focused Deterrence. Chicago: University of Chicago Legal Forum.
Tita, G., Riley, K.J., Ridgeway, G., Grammich, C., Abrahamse, A.F. (2010). Reducing Gun Violence: Results From An Intervention In East Los Angeles. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.
Wallace, W., Papachristos, A. V., Meares, T. L., & Fagan, J. (2015). Desistance and Legitimacy: The Impact of Offender Notification Meetings on Recidivism among High Risk Offenders. Justice Quarterly.
Wakeling, S.(2003, February). Ending Gang Homicide: Deterrence Can Work. Perspectives on Violent Prevention. California Attorney General’s Office/California Health and Human Services Agency.